The main results using traditional AB scores were: (i) compared to those without a history of MDD or AD, there was no evidence for a difference in AB towards negative adjectives or away from positive adjectives in strictly defined clinical groups of MDD participants with or without a comorbid AD; (ii) specifically for longer duration trials (1250 ms), rMDD individuals showed higher (less negative) AB scores for negative adjectives than the no AD/MDD comparison group. A similar pattern has been found in dysphoric individuals (sub-clinically depressed) [15, 16]. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. The groups neither differed significantly on age (F (3,167.54) = .24, p = .86), nor on gender, Pearson χ2 (3) = 6.74, p = .08. The current findings cast some doubt on the robustness of these earlier findings. This study aims to clarify the presence of these ABs among individuals with clinical and subclinical depression. Post-stroke depression increases the likelihood of adverse physical symptoms. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation We used this same method to match each valid trial to a subsequently presented invalid trial. To examine whether in line with predictions, the effect of group for the Threat AB score Presentation Time 500 ms that just fell short of the conventional level of significance was mainly due to more extreme AB for threat in the mixed MDD/AD group, we used Dunnett’s method (two sided) for multiple comparisons. Cues were presented at random on the right or left side of the fixation cross and every word cue was presented twice in each half of the task: Once in a valid trial (i.e., word cue is valid predictor for the target location), and once in an invalid trial. Interestingly, there is also some evidence of a predictive relationship in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD): A difficulty in disengaging attention from sad faces has been related to sustained negative mood, as measured in an eye-tracking study . This study used data from the baseline and 2-year follow-up assessment (for details see and the website www.nesda.nl) as the latter was the wave in which the ECT assessment was incorporated. Apart from the conceptual criticisms with regard to TL-BS (e.g.,), it is important to note that we measured AB with an ECT instead of a visual probe task (VPT), and used four instead of three categories of stimuli (as[30, 31]). Yes Many of these cognitive models include attentional bias (AB) as both a contributing and a maintaining factor to depression (e.g.,. Stroke is more likely in older adults, who can have reduced cognitive function. Although the TL-BS approach showed promising results in terms of prognostic value, it also gave rise to major conceptual criticisms. Yet, the relatively high (less negative) AB score for negative adjectives in remitted individuals points to the possibility that an AB for negative information may be involved as a risk factor in the recurrence of MDD. To test whether differences in AB would be most pronounced when stimuli would be presented for a longer duration as was found in previous analogue research (e.g., ), we also included trials with 1250 ms presentation time. People with major depressive disorder (MDD) show an attentional bias in which they over-attend to negative information while often ignoring positive information. The threatening and neutral words were selected from earlier studies on AB [45, 46]. Overall, the researchers found that anxious individuals were significantly slower to respond to the target image when the distracting images were negative as opposed to when they were positive or neutral. The assessments at baseline and follow-up were largely similar; they lasted between 3 and 5 hours and were conducted on one day. If a participant gave the wrong number, also a rectangle with the words “missed digit!” in capitals appeared in the middle of the screen. Researchers have found that people who have eating disorders tend to pay more attention to stimuli related to food, while individuals experiencing drug addictions tend to be hypersensitive to drug-related cues.1 For people struggling to recover from an eating disorder or addiction, this tendency to pay attention to certain signals while discounting others c… We compared three groups based on a semi-structured diagnostic interview and a depressive symptoms scale (BDI-II): 34 individuals with major depressive disorder (clinically depressed); 35 with a dysphoric mood but without the criteria of major depressive disorder (i.e., subclinically depressed), and 26 never been depressed individuals. For characteristics of participants as a function of group see Table 1. Together, this pattern indicates that the mixed MDD/AD group showed larger AB scores towards shortly presented threat words as well as larger AB scores away from longer presented threat words than the comparison group. Then during the face-to-face contact the written information was discussed and it was checked whether the information was completely understood. 8.48), p = .99, 95% CI [-18.51; 21.99], d = 0.04) nor the rMDD group (mean difference 1.44 ms (s.e. For longer duration trials, specifically the mixed MDD/AD group showed heightened scores for the index of mean AB away from threat stimuli. Participants also completed trait and state psychological measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol analysis. Supervision, The two-year follow-up assessment consisted of a face-to-face clinic visit, in which baseline assessments–except those concerning stable concepts–were repeated. To the extent that one is willing to see less IoR (and thus less bias away from negative stimuli) as a stronger inclination to dwell on negative stimuli (cf. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205154.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205154.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205154.s003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205154.s004. We hypothesized that especially for the longer presentation times participants with MDD with and without AD’s would be characterized by stronger AB for negative adjectives than the comparison group. A few additional assessments, e.g. This is known as the inhibition of return effect (IoR;). The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in the maintenance of depression. However, systematic reviews point to limited efficacy in terms of remission, response rates and long-term effects for both pharmacological  … General exclusion criteria were presence of a psychiatric disorder other than depressive or AD (e.g., psychosis, bipolar disorder, severe addictive disorder) or lack of fluency in Dutch. Of the 2128 participants, we selected four subgroups: Group 1 (MDD) consisted of participants diagnosed with a current (in the last month) MDD, but without dysthymia and without a current AD or history of ADs (n = 29; 1.36%); Group 2 (mixed MDD/AD) consisted of participants diagnosed with a current (in the last month) major depressive disorder and a current anxiety disorder, but without dysthymia (n = 86; 4.04%); Group 3 (rMDD) consisted of participants with a history of MDD, but no current MDD nor dysthymia (in the last six months) and no current or history of anxiety disorders (n = 294; 13.81%); Group 4 (comparisons) consisted of healthy comparisons without a lifetime history of either anxiety or depressive disorders (n = 474; 22.27%) . Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. In total, the task consisted of 4 stimulus types x 16 exemplars x 2 valid/invalid x 2 presentation times = 256 word trials, 10 practice trials and 20 digit trials. Thus far, AB research in depression has mainly focused on the attentional preference for negative versus positive information (for a review, see , whereas studies investigating AB in anxiety disorders (AD)s typically relied on (disorder-specific) threatening information (e.g., [20, 21,22]. For Threat 500 ms F (3,871) = 5.16, p = .002, partial η2 = .01 and for Threat 1250 ms F (3,871) = 4.85, p = .002, partial η2 = .009 there was a significant difference between groups. Zvielli et al. The MDD group (mean difference 0.48 (s.e. Software, argued that previous findings concerning AB were explained by a failure to take the importance of the dynamic nature of AB into account. Most important, the findings of this simulation study indicated that TL-BS indices are prone to result in false positive group differences; the differences between groups might in fact reflect differences in mean reaction times and/ or differences in overall SD . The between subject tests indicated that the effect of group was neither significant for variability of AB for Negative 500 ms (F (3,871) = 2.61, p = .05, partial η2 = .009), nor for Negative 1250 ms (F (3,871) = .86, p = .45, partial η2 = .003). Table 4 shows the significant post hoc contrasts for the analyses of the traditional AB scores as well as of the TL-BS indices. In addition, we tested whether the temporal unfolding of AB in MDD differs across stimulus type . One of these studies presented participants with sets of depression-related, anxiety-related, positive, and neutral images and tracked participants’ eye-movements. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Cues (words) and targets (black squares) were presented in the center of the placeholders. No, Is the Subject Area "Reaction time" applicable to this article? Department of Psychiatry/EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Roles Video abstract from Dr LeMoult on her recently published paper "Attentional bias training in girls at risk for depression". At baseline, a total of 748 (25.1% of the total sample) respondents were using antidepressants . In this way we were able to examine whether the pattern of AB in pure MDD participants differed from that in individuals with comorbid AD. The heightened AB scores for threat stimuli in the mixed group could well be the result of the comorbid AD (e.g., driven by AD-related fearful preoccupations), although it cannot be ruled out that the presence of the threat bias is related to the more severe condition of the mixed group compared to the pure MDD group. Subsequent research among nonclinical participants found similar results  suggesting that AB in depression may reflect a difficulty in disengaging from negative information rather than enhancing orientation/engagement. Supervision, Against predictions, there was no specific AB in the group of MDD, neither for negative nor for positive adjectives. This study aims to investigate the acute and chronic effects of a dietary intervention of 22 g freeze-dried whole wild blueberry powder. A white rectangle placeholder was presented (4 cm high x 10.5 cm long), both on the left and the right side of this fixation cross. These groups consisted of participants with pure MDD without a history of AD, participants with both MDD and AD (mixed group), and individuals who were remitted from MDD (rMDD). Each trial started with the presentation of the fixation cross and the two placeholders for 500 ms. Next, a word cue was presented in the left or right placeholder, for 500 ms (short presentation time) or 1250 ms (long presentation time). All other mean differences between groups were not statistically significant. These other measurements are beyond the scope of this study (see [34, 35]for a detailed description). Neither clinical nor subclinical depression was characterized by attentional biases. Furthermore, the total sample of participants with MDD was too small to reliably examine sex differences in AB. For threat words there were significant differences between groups for Threat Towards 500 ms F (3,734) = 4.80, p = .003, partial η2 = .01 and for Threat Away 1250 ms F (3,734) = 2.68, p = .04 partial η2 = .01. This strategy meant that we had to exclude a high number of individuals (suffering from MDD and dysthymia) and that the severity of depressive symptoms was less in the current MDD group than in the comorbid group. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether negative attentional biases are trainable and causally linked to changes in important characteristics of depression, namely self-esteem. Table 3 gives a detailed description of the traditional AB score per stimulus type and presentation time. In addition, we included positive stimuli to test whether AB in MDD is not only characterized by enhanced attention for negative information but also an attenuated bias for positive information. Supervision, This study was designed to examine selective processing of emotional information in depression. In line with previous studies (e.g., ), RT’s < 200 ms and RT’s > 1000 ms were considered anticipatory responding and delayed responding, respectively, and were discarded. Yes The notion is that by practicing attending to happiness, I recognizing that the tendency to focus on the negative can lead to depression, and deliberately seeking out positive stimuli in the environment, we may be able to treat and/or prevent depression. We assumed that both patterns would especially be reflected on longer presentation times.
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